Russian Constructivism
The Art History Archive - Soviet Art

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Russian Constructivism was a movement that was active from 1913 to the 1940s. It was a movement created by the Russian avant-garde, but quickly spread to the rest of the continent. Constructivist art is committed to complete abstraction with a devotion to modernity, where themes are often geometric, experimental and rarely emotional. Objective forms carrying universal meaning were far more suitable to the movement than subjective or individualistic forms. Constructivist themes are also quite minimal, where the artwork is broken down to its most basic elements. New media was often used in the creation of works, which helped to create a style of art that was orderly. An art of order was desirable at the time because it was just after WWI that the movement arose, which suggested a need for understanding, unity and peace. Famous artists of the Constructivist movement include Vladimir Tatlin, Kasimir Malevich, Alexandra Exter, Robert Adams, and El Lissitzky.

Tatlin's most famous piece remains his "Monument to the Third International" (1919-20, Moscow), a 22-ft-high (6.7-m) iron frame on which rested a revolving cylinder, cube, and cone, all made of glass which was originally designed for massive scale. After the 1917 Revolution, Tatlin (considered the father of Russian Constructivism) worked for the new Soviet Education Commissariate which used artists and art to educate the public. During this period, he developed an officially authorized art form which utilized 'real materials in real space'. His project for a Monument of the Third International marked his first foray into architecture and became a symbol for Russian avant-garde architecture and International Modernism.

Other painters, sculptors, and photographers working during this time were usually involved with industrial materials such as glass, steel, and plastic in clearly defined arrangements. Because of their admiration for machines and technology, functionalism, and modern mediums, members were also called artist-engineers.

Main Representatives: Alexander Rodchenko, Liubov Popova, Vladimir Tatlin, Olga Rozanova, Alexandra Exter, Naum Gabo, El Lissitzky, Antoine Pevsner, Kasimir Malevich and Alexander Vesnin.

  • Vladimir Tatlin - Counter Relief - 1914-15

  • Ivan Albertovich Puni (Jean Pougny) - Reconstruction - 1915

  • Vladimir Tatlin - Monument to the Third International - 1919-20

  • Vladimir Lebedev - Relief - 1920

  • Vasilii Ermilov - Composition - c.1922

  • Vasilii Ermilov - Relief - 1924

  • Il'ia Chashnik - The Seventh Dimension: Suprematist Stripe Relief - 1925

  • Gustav Klutsis - Workers, Everyone must vote in the Election of Soviets! - 1930

  • Varvara Stepanova - The Third Warrior - Date Unknown

    Artists associated with Russian Constructivism

  • Aleksandr Rodchenko - (1891-1956)
  • Alexander Vesnin
  • Aníbal Villacís - (1927-Present)
  • Antoine Pevsner - (1886-1962)
  • Berthold Lubetkin
  • Carlos Catasse - (1944-Present)
  • Dziga Vertov - filmmaker (1896-1954)
  • Ella Bergmann-Michel - (1896-1971)
  • El Lissitzky - (1890-1941)
  • Enrique Tábara - (1930-Present)
  • Erwin Hauer - (1926- )
  • Estuardo Maldonado - (1930-Present)
  • Georgii and Vladimir Stenberg
  • Gustav Klutsis - (1895-1938)
  • Ivan Leonidov
  • Joaquin Torres Garcia - (1874-1949)
  • John Ernest - (1922-1994)
  • John McHale - (1922-1978)
  • Konstantin Melnikov - (1890-1974)
  • László Moholy-Nagy - (1895-1946)
  • Louis Lozowick
  • Lyubov Popova - (1889-1924)
  • Manuel Rendón Seminario - (1894-1982)
  • Moisei Ginzburg, architect
  • Naum Gabo - (1890-1977)
  • Norman Carlberg, sculptor (1928 - )
  • Oskar Schlemmer - (1888-1943)
  • Oswaldo Viteri - (1931-Present)
  • Theo Constanté - (1934-Present)
  • Tomoyoshi Murayama - (1901-1977)
  • Vadim Meller - (1884-1962)
  • Varvara Stepanova - (1894-1958)
  • Vasiliy Yermilov - (1894-1967)
  • Victor Pasmore - (1908-1998)
  • Vladimir Shukhov - (1853-1939)
  • Vladimir Tatlin - (1885-1953)
  • Vsevolod Meyerhold

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